INTRODUCTION TO JUDO
Judo is a relatively new sport which was devised by Dr. Jigaro Kano in mid-19th century based on a more ancient sport of jujitsu.
Judo became an Olympic sport for men in the 1964 Games in Tokyo. Dutchman Anton Geesink won the first Olympic gold medal in the open division of judo by defeating Akio Kaminaga of Japan. The women’s event was introduced at the Olympics in 1988 as a demonstration event, and an official medal event in 1992
Judo in India
Judo was first introduced in India in 1929 and judo federation of India was formed in 1965.
Some of the famous Indian judokas.
- Sandeep Byala.
- kawas kersap Billimoria
- Angom Anita Chanu
- Narinder Singh
- Poonam Chopra
- Ms. Thoudam kalpana devi became the first indian to achieve a top 3 finish at a world cup with a bronze in 2012.
Countries dominating judo scenario and greats.
Male all-time greats:
- Kano jigoro – Japan
- Yasuhiro yamashita – Japan
- Tadahiro nomura – Japan
Female all-time greats:
- Majlinda kelmendi – Kosovo
- Ryoko tani – japan
- Masae uno – japan
Judoka is a term used for a judo practitioner.
- Randori (free practice)
Randori means “free practice”. This term covers a variety of forms of practice, and the intensity at which it is carried out varies depending on intent and the level of expertise of the participants
- Kata (forms)
Kata are pre-arranged patterns of techniques in judo and are practiced with a partner. Their purposes include illustrating the basic principles of judo, demonstrating the correct execution of a technique, teaching the philosophical tenets upon which judo is based,
- Tandoku-renshu :
Judo waza (techniques) :
- Nage waza (throwing techniques)
- Katame-waza (grappling techniques)
Weight divisions :
Currently judo competitions are held under seven weight divisions, subject to change by governing bodies, and may be modified based on the age of the competitors:
|Men||Under 60 kg||60-66||66-73||73-81||81-90||90-100||Over 100 Kg|
|Women||Under 48 Kg||48-52||52-57||57-63||63-70||70-78||Over 78 Kg|
A throw that places the opponent on his back with impetus and control scores an ippon winning the contest. A lesser throw, where the opponent is thrown onto his back, but with insufficient force to merit an ippon, scores a waza-ari .Two scores of waza-ari equal an ippon waza-ari awasete ippon .A throw that places the opponent onto his side scores a yuko .No amount of yukos equal a waza-ari, they are only considered in the event of an otherwise tied contest.
For Olympics, the international judo federation, has brought about changes in evaluation of points. There will only be ippon and waza-ari scores given during a match. There will be no more yuko score. The waza-ari score will also not be added up, which means two waza-ari will no longer be the equivalent of ippon.
Ippon is scored in ne-waza for pinning an opponent on his back with a recognized osaekomi-waza for 20 seconds or by forcing a submission through shime-waza or kansetsu-waza. A submission is signaled by tapping the mat or the opponent at least twice with the hand or foot, or by saying maitta (I surrender). pin lasting for less than 20 seconds, but more than 15 seconds scores waza-ari and one lasting less than 15 seconds but more than 10 seconds scores a yuko.
If the scores are identical at the end of the match, the contest is resolved by the Golden Score rule. Golden Score is sudden death situation where the clock is reset to match-time, and the first contestant to achieve any score wins. If there is no score during this period, then the match would continue until a judoka scored through a technique or if the opponent is penalized (Shido).
Minor rules infractions are penalized with a shido (“guidance”). This is treated as a warning and anything up to three shido make no contribution to the overall score. A serious rules violation yields a hansoku make (“foul-play defeat”), resulting in disqualification of the penalized competitor.
Rank and grading
A judoka’s position within the kyu-dan ranking system is displayed by the color of their belt. Beginning students typically wear a white belt, progressing through descending kyu ranks until they are deemed to have achieved a level of competence sufficient to be a Dan grade, at which point they wear the kuro obi (black belt). The kyu-dan ranking system has since been widely adopted by modern martial arts.
Special Thanks to our Editor Vallabh Vishwanath Desai for his contribution in “Special Coverage – Judo” .
Talking about India in Judo, everyone knows the story, we are nowhere near to the top level in Judo & Sports Talk24 believes talking about all the sports will contribute somewhat in popularity of sport & will create awareness.